A history of On-Board Diagnostics
In the early 1960s, the California government raised the idea of car computer system regulation which required auto manufacturers to monitor some of the emission control components on vehicles. In 1969, Volkswagen group rolls out fuel-injected Type 3 models with scanning capability, becoming the first to introduce on-board computer system. But it wasn’t until the 80s that the system was used widely.
The first generation of On-Board Diagnostic requirements, called OBD-I, is developed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and implemented in 1988. CARB then requires that all new vehicles sold in California in that year and newer vehicles have some basic OBD capability. But at that time the data link connector and its position are not standardized, nor is the data protocol.
As technology and the desire for a state-wide emissions testing program, a second-generation of On-Board Diagnostics (OBD-II) is developed by CARB in 1994. It is in the same year that the DTCs and connector suggested by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) are incorporated into this specification. Two years after the birth of OBDII
, newer gasoline and alternate fuel passenger cars and trucks in US are required to have OBD II systems.
Another system EOBD is mandated for all gasoline (petrol) vehicles sold in the European Union by EU in 2001 and for all diesel vehicles sold in EU two years later.
In 2008, a new car computer system named Controller Area Network (CAN BUS) is created and all cars sold in the US are required to use the ISO 15765-4 signaling standard, a variant of the CAN BUS.